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Flora and fauna
Due to the foresight and initiative men, as Professor Ambroz Haračić, large areas of the island rockery were reforested at the end of the 19th century on Mali and Veli Lošinj. The gentle climate of the island of Lošinj is seen in its richness of plant types. According to research, about 1100 plant types were identified, of which 939 belong to the autochthonous flora. 230 of these plans fall under medical herbs. About 80 types of plants, mainly exotic plants, were brought from other parts of the world by masters and sailors from Lošinj, who planted them in and around their home gardens. Because of the typical climate plants from south Dalmatia and Sicily can be grown. Here grow agaves, Mexican cactus (opuntia), palm trees, magnolias, mirth, pistachios, mimosa, fig tree from India (karmus-nassarah), lemon, orange and mandarin trees (brought from Vietnam to Palermo, and then to Mali Lošinj). Thick pinewoods around Mali Lošinj became the green belt that protects the town and the harbour from the north wind. On the side of Čikat the woods slowly changed into a park. Today the thick pinewoods of Lošinj are the symbol of the island and a valuable asset in its tourist development. The Čikat has been nominated a forest park. In Veli Lošinj’s park, established by the Hapsburg Archduke Charles Stephen, there are some 200 different species of trees from all parts of the world. The vegetation on the island is growing luxuriant during all seasons. Based on professor A. Haračić’s research the state of vegetation makes the climate better. The culmination of vegetation is in May when most plants flourish. The most beautiful months on Lošinj are from March until May, because of the mild temperatures, richness of flourishing vegetation and the aromatic scents in the air.
It is significant that there are no poisonous snakes on the Lošinj archipelago. There are just lizards and non-poisonous snakes. The island of Lošinj is the habitat of geckos, small lizards of the gekkonidae family. Geckos are protected species. Killing geckos is forbidden and punished by law. Jakov Matunci from Mali Lošinj, was placed third in the World Competition in Environmental Protection Volvo Adventure in Goeteborg, Sweden, for his project of protection of geckos, small Mediterranean lizards found on most Adriatic islands, in May 2004. There is small game, as well as big game on the island – fallow deer and moufflons, which have been colonized in this area. There is a lot of feathered game. The birds of prey found in this area include hawks, sparrow-hawks, falcons and giant griffon vultures. Because of the small number of preserved individuals griffon vultures have been protected by law as an endangered species. The most common domestic animals found in this area are sheep. The sheep on the rocky pastures in the northern part of the island of Lošinj present an idyllic picture. Because of the indentedness the sea that waters the coastline of the island is extremely rich with plant and animal life. Endless currents between the bays give the sea special clearness and limpidness, cleanliness and sheerness. In our seas live 95 types of fish, 71 types of crabs, mussels, snails, and different types of marine flora. Dolphins are regular visitors, playful and ready to establish contact with humans, not unlike in adjacent local waters where they are completely extinct. They are excellent biological witnesses of the state of nature in which they live.